Atsina Warriors, 1908


Shot in the Hand – Apsaroke, 1908

Born about 1841 … by fasting he obtained his hawk-medicine; it was his custom to make a powder of a hawk’s heart, sweet-grass, and green paint, and to eat a portion of the mixture just before going into battle. Counted three dákshe, captured three guns and one tethered horse, but lacked the medicine to become a war-leader. Once rushed up a height to strike the Piegan who were entrenched on the summit, when a shot brought him to the ground; he arose and charged again, and was again shot, this time rolling to the foot of the hill. Seven times he struck an enemy who was firing at him. After the suspension of intertribal hostilities the Ogalala chief Red Cloud, who boasted of having preformed this feat four times, sent a challenge to the Apsaroke to produce a man who could equal the record, and Shot In The Hand was promptly named. Shot In The Hand played a spectacular in the battle against the Sioux  on Pryor creek … On another occasion he dismounted beside his father, who had been shot in the thigh, and though the latter was killed the son was rescued, wounded in the arm. Four times in as many different fights he seized an unharmed enemy by the hair and hurled him from his horse …  He “threw away” seven of his eight wives. Volume IV, page 204


Shot in the Hand – Apsaroke, 1905

Shot in the Hand – Apsaroke, 1905

Medicine Crow - Apsaroke, 1908

Medicine Crow – Apsaroke, 1908

Medicine Crow – Apsaroke

Born in 1848. Mountain Crow; member of the Newly Made Lodge clan and of the Lumpwood organization. At eighteen he fasted four days and three nights, and on the morning of the forth days spirit resembling a white man appeared and foretold the passing away of the buffalo and the coming of many white men with cattle, horses, and steamboats. His medicine of hawk was purchased from another man. Counted three first coups, captured five guns and two tethered horses, and led ten successful war parties.




Red Cloud – Ogalala,1907

Born 1822. At the age of fifteen he accompanied a war-party which killed eighty Pawnee … At seventeen heled a party that killed eight of the same tribe. During his career he killed two Shoshoni and ten Apsaroke … Red Cloud received his name, in recognition of his bravery, from his father after the latter’s death. Before that his name had been Two Arrows, Wa”-n”iti. His brother in-law, Nachili, gave him medicine tied up in a little deerskin bag.  Always before going to war Red Cloud rubbed this over his body. All the tribe regarded his medicine as very potent. He first gained notice as a leader by his success at Fort Phil. Kearny in 1866, when he killed Captain Fetterman and eighty soldiers. In the following year he led a large party, two to three thousand, it is said, in an attack on a wood-train at the  same post, but was repulsed with great loss … Previously only chief of the BadFace hand of Ogalala, he became head-chief of the tribe after the abandonment of Fort Phil. Kearny. Red Cloud was prevented from joining in the Custer fightby the action of General Mackensie in disarming him and his camp.


Red Cloud - Ogalala, 1907

Red Cloud – Ogalala, 1907

Waihusiwa, a Zuni Kyaqimassi, 1903

Waihusiwa, a Zuni Kyaqimassi, 1903

Waihusiwa, a Zuni Kyaqimassi

Kyaqimassi (“house chief”) is the title of the Shiwanni of the north, the most important of all Zuni priests. Waihusiwa in his youth spent the summer and fall of 1886 in the East with Franklin Hamilton Cushing, and was the narrator of much of the lore published in Cushing’s Zuni Folk Tales. A highly spiritual man, he is one of the most steadfast of the Zuni priests upholding the traditions of the native religion.



John Pierpont Morgan

John Pierpont Morgan (1837 – 1913) was an American financier, banker and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892 Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. After financing the creation of the Federal Steel Company he merged in 1901 with the Carnegie Steel Company and several other steel and iron businesses, including Consolidated Steel and Wire Company, to form the United States Steel Corporation.

Morgan was a patron to photographer Edward S. Curtis, offering Curtis $75,000 in 1906, for a series on the American Indian. Curtis eventually published a 20-volume work entitled “The North American Indian.” Curtis went on to produce a motion picture In The Land Of The Head Hunters (1914), which was later restored in 1974 and re-released as In The Land Of The War Canoes. Curtis was also famous for a 1911 Magic Lantern slide show The Indian Picture Opera, which used his photos and original musical compositions by composer Henry F. Gilbert.

John Pierpont Morgan – Edward Steichen, 1903

John Pierpont Morgan, Edward Stiechen, 1903

Theodore Roosevelt - Orotone

Theodore Roosevelt Goldtone,  Edward Curtis

Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was the 26th President of the United States (1901–1909). He is noted for his energetic personality, range of interests and achievements, leadership of the Progressive Movement, and his “cowboy” image and robust masculinity. He was a leader of the Republican Party and founder of the short-lived Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party of 1912. Before becoming President, he held offices at the municipal, state, and federal level of government. Roosevelt’s achievements as a naturalist, explorer, hunter, author, and soldier are as much a part of his fame as any office he held as a politician.

Born into a wealthy family, Roosevelt was a sickly child who suffered from asthma and stayed at home studying natural history. To compensate for his physical weakness, he embraced a strenuous life. Home schooled, he became a passionate student of nature. He attended Harvard, where he boxed and developed an interest in naval affairs. Published in 1882, Roosevelt’s first historical book, The Naval War of 1812, established his professional reputation as a serious historian. After a few years of living in the Badlands, Roosevelt returned to New York City, where he gained fame for fighting police corruption. The Spanish–American War broke out while Roosevelt was, effectively, running the Department of the Navy. He promptly resigned and led a small regiment in Cuba known as the Rough Riders, earning a nomination for the Medal of Honor, which was received posthumously on his behalf on January 16, 2001. After the war, he returned to New York and was elected Governor in a close-fought election. Within two years, he was elected Vice President of the United States. More …



E. H. Harriman

E. H. Harriman (1848 – 1909) was a railroad executive, born in Hempstead, New York, the son of an Episcopal clergyman. He quit school at age 14 to take a job as an errand boy on Wall Street in New York City. His rise from that humble station was meteoric. By age 22, he was a member of the New York Stock Exchange. And, by age 33, he focused his energies on acquiring rail lines. At the time of his death Harriman controlled the Union Pacific, the Southern Pacific, the Saint Joseph and Grand Island, the Illinois Central, the Central of Georgia, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, and the Wells Fargo Express Company.

In 1899, Harriman financed and accompanied a scientific expedition known as the Harriman Expedition to catalog the flora and fauna of the Alaska coastline from its lush southern panhandle to Prince William Sound. He organized a broad range of experts—arctic experts, botanists, biologists and zoologists, geologists and geographers, artists, photographers, ornithologists, and writers. Among the many distinguished scholars who joined him were John Burroughs, John Muir, George Bird Grinnell, Louis Agassiz Fuertes, Edward S. Curtis, and Clinton Hart Merriam.

The expedition discovered some 600 species that were new to science, including 38 new fossil species. They charted the geographic distribution of many species. They also discovered an unmapped fjord and named several new glaciers. More …


E.H. Harriman

Edward H. Harriman Platinum Print,  Edward Curtis

The North American Indian: Foreword

In Mr. Curtis we have both an artist and a trained observer, whose pictures are pictures, not merely photographs; Whose work has far more than mere accuracy, because it is truthful. All serious students are to be congratulated because he is putting his work in permanent form; for our generation offers the last chance for doing what Mr. Curtis has done.

The Indian as he has hitherto been is on the point of passing away. His life has been lived under conditions thru which our own race past so many ages ago that not a vestige of their memory remains. It would be a veritable calamity if a vivid and truthful record of these conditions were not kept.

No one man alone could preserve such a record in complete form. Others have worked in the past, and are working in the present, to preserve parts of the record; but Mr. Curtis, because of the singular combination of qualities with which he has been blest, and because of his extraordinary success in making and using his opportunities, has been able to do what no other man ever has done; what, as for as we can see, no other man could do.

He is an artist who works out of doors and not in the closet. He is a close observer, whose qualities of mind and body fit him to make his observations out in the field, surrounded by the wild life he commemorates. He has lived on intimate terms with many different tribes of the mountains and the plains. He knows them as they bunt, as they travel, as they go about their various avocations on the march and in the camp. He knows their medicine men and sorcerers, their chiefs and warriors, their young men and maidens.

He has not only seen their vigorous outward existence, but has caught glimpses, such as few white men ever catch, into that strange spiritual and mental life of theirs; from whose innermost recesses all white men are forever barred. Mr. Curtis in publishing this book is rendering a real and great service; a service not only to our people, but to the world of scholarship everywhere.


October 1st, 1906

An Oasis in the Badlands 1905

An Oasis in the Badlands, 1905